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This glossary contains terms that support the main terms in the book. It includes both additional learning terms and business terms that relate to education and training.

affective domain
In Bloom’s Taxonomy, the affective domain refers to the learner’s reactions, emotions, or feelings. Learning objectives written to address the affective domain specify levels of awareness and growth in attitudes, emotions, and/or feelings, such as characterizing, organizing, valuing, responding, receiving.

A set of instructions that define a sequence of actions and decisions to solve a particular problem. An algorithm is a high-level description of how to solve the problem. To use an algorithm, you need to create a computer program that implements the algorithm. (See adaptive learning and machine learning)

alt text
Also, alternative text. Supplemental text added to content (typically an image) that describes that content. Used by rendering systems when the content cannot be rendered or when a user is unable to view the content in its original form. (See accessibility)

Someone who is knowledgeable in a particular field who is asked to provide advice, possibly to judge competency in that field. (See certification)

authentic learning
Learning content and methods focused on connecting learning with real-world issues, problems, and applications experienced on the job. (See blended learning)

autodidactic learner
A person who studies and possibly masters a topic without formal training. Also known as an autodidact, an autodidactic learner decides what to study, seeks out resources, determines the best way to learn a new topic, and implements a course of action to gain the desired level of proficiency. (See heutagogy)

B2B interactions
Business-to-Business transaction of any type. It could be one business exchanging goods for services from the other or one business purchasing products from another at wholesale pricing. (See augmented reality)

benchmark standards
A reference used to compare or evaluate performance. For example, a company may set an a sales benchmark for how many sales are closed in a particular time interval.

big data processing
The extraction and processing of large volumes of information (data) for use in supporting decisions, solving problems, or predicting behaviors or outcomes. (See machine learning)

Working in groups to share knowledge and resources. Also known as collaborative learning.

code of ethics
An individual’s personal values and sense of right and wrong. Also, a set of standards of conduct that members of a group are expected to uphold. (See certification)

cognitive domain
In Bloom’s Taxonomy, the cognitive domain refers to the level of knowledge attained. Learning objectives written to address the cognitive domain include: evaluation, synthesis (or creation), analysis, application, comprehension, knowledge.

cognitive tests
An assessment of a person’s thinking ability. An IQ test is an example of a cognitive test.

collaborative social technologies
Technologies or tools that exist to make it possible for people to seek out help, share best practices, and collaborate with others, whether in real time or asynchronously. These technologies make it easier to offer and receive advice, instructions, corrections etc. (See blended learning)

Social and economic systems set up to encourage people to keep buying goods and services, especially those they likely don’t even need, in ever-increasing amounts. (See augmented reality)

contrast ratio
A property of a display expressed as the ratio of the luminance of the brightest shade to that of the darkest shade that the display is capable of rendering. Accessible content will use a high contrast ratio. (See accessibility)

critical pedagogy
A philosophy of education developed to encompass culture, social justice, and democracy as integral elements of education. (See pedagogy)

critical thinking
Application and analysis of facts to form reasoned judgement.

customer relationship management (CRM)
A process in which an organization maintains records of all interactions with customers. The information is then used for data analysis (aka data mining) to look for customer preferences, trends, etc.

The art of protecting networks, devices, and data from unauthorized access or criminal use and the practice of ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information. Definition from the US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA). (See machine learning)

data analytics
The practice of formulating and reporting insights derived from data. (See adaptive learning)

data modeling
Analysts use information (data) to build models that are used to predict possible behaviors and outcomes. (See machine learning)

design system
Set of related patterns and shared practices arranged or organized for use in streamlining digital content. (See learning environment modeling)

Example intended to teach with an ulterior motive that is likely based on a moral topic or instruction. (See andragogy)

dissemination methodologies
The way or ways that content will be shared or distributed to learners.

distractor answers
The incorrect answers offered in a multiple-choice test question.

domain-specific knowledge
Knowledge in a specific discipline. Several theorists have put forward theories that claim that we each have more than one type of independent or specialized knowledge structure or domain. (See communities of practice)

Digital evidence of someone’s work product stored and maintained on the web. Also known as an electronic portfolio. (See digital badges)

environmental stimuli
Our senses recognize and respond, both consciously and unconsciously, to things taking place around us all of the time. Environmental stimuli help to embed learning in our brains and make it available for recall. Examples include: temperature changes, weather, humidity, heat, cold, smells, tastes, level of comfort, sounds, noises, etc. (See behaviorism)

A zealous advocacy of something, especially a cause or product. (See augmented reality)

extrinsic motivation
Completion of an activity because it is required or carries with it some form of external reward.

fab lab
A workshop where people can fabricate nearly anything that can be made using 3D printing or machining equipment. Groups are provided fabrication equipment they can use to build whatever they can dream up. (See Makerspace)

game aesthetics
Elements that make up the user interface (UI) for the game, setting the scene and providing both context and ease of use. Game aesthetics includes things like: locations, color combinations, button placement, labels, sounds, etc.

game dynamics
Specifications as to how a game encourages players to engage with the game and continue to participate. This is sometimes referred to as the user experience (UX). Game dynamics includes things like: types of social interaction and elements, companion avatar(s), level of difficulty, feedback, how quickly or slowly players are able to achieve success, etc.

game elements
The rules and procedures that define how to play a game and achieve levels of mastery. (See gamification)

game mechanics
Specifications as to how a game will be played. Game mechanics includes things like: single player or multi-player game, number of levels of achievement, point systems, quizzes, distractors, etc.

game thinking
Amy Jo Kim defines game thinking this way: Game Thinking is the art and science of engaging customers on a compelling path to mastery. (See gamification)

See gamification, game-based learning, and digital badges.

Gatherings of people with similar interests, typically computers or technology, to work on projects, share ideas, and socialize. (See Makerspace)

haptic feedback
Technology that creates an experience (e.g., providing feedback or acceptance of commands) through touch, vibration, or movement. (See augmented reality)

head-mounted display
Part of a helmet or other type of headwear that is worn when interacting with virtual reality simulations and experiences. (See virtual reality)

higher-order thinking levels
Bloom’s Taxonomy qualifies thinking skills as lower order and higher order. Higher-order thinking skills require someone to use more than their memory to recall and apply something. Higher-order thinking skills include: analyzing, evaluating, and creating.

human-centered design
An approach to designing learning that takes people’s behaviors, preferences, and pain points into account to help them find the best ways to creatively solve problems. (See learning experience design)

immersive projection rooms
An immersive learning environment that uses projection on the walls, floor, and ceiling, possibly in combination with movement, touch, scent, and sound, to provide a learning experience. (See virtual reality)

implicit learning propensity
Ability to learn organically in one’s own environment without setting the intention to learn.

intrinsic motivation
Completing an activity for the pure satisfaction of having accomplished that activity.

item analysis
A process of analyzing learner responses to questions in an assessment in order to validate the overall quality of the assessment. This includes an analysis of question difficulty, distribution of scoring, and the value of distractor answers.

journey maps
A series of user or learner visualizations or actions mapped to a timeline. (See learning experience design)

knowledge management
Process of creating, sharing, using, and managing the organization’s knowledge and information and used as the basis for learning within the organization. (See communities of practice)

learning and development infrastructure
An organizational framework constructed to support the development, management, and delivery of learning content. This includes the systems, policies, procedures, and personnel devoted to learning and development. (See coaching)

learning campaign
A long-term plan for embedding learning. Learning campaigns employ a variety of methods. (See blended learning)

learning strategy
A method or methods learners use to learn. May also refer to a broader strategy employed by a company for its overall learning and development work. (See adaptive learning, evaluation, and pedagogy)

learning style
The idea that individuals differ with respect to what modes of instruction are most effective for them. While learners do have preferences regarding how they learn material (see learner preference) there is little evidence that instruction that is tailored to a particular style makes a significant difference in learning outcomes(Pashler 2009). (See learner preference)

The granting of a license to perform an activity or profession or to hold a particular title. Many careers require you to obtain a license to practice, which is conferred by an authorized regulating authority. (See accreditation and certification)

Method used to determine the distance to an object by targeting the object with a laser and then measuring the time for the reflected light to return to the receiver. LIDAR is an acronym for either: LIght Detection And Ranging or Laser Imaging, Detection, And Ranging. (See augmented reality)

long-term memory
The area of our brains that retains information and stimuli over long periods of time. (See cognitivism and working memory)

lower-order thinking levels
Bloom’s Taxonomy qualifies thinking skills as lower order and higher order. Lower-order thinking skills are applied when someone uses memory and basic knowledge to recall something. Lower-order thinking skills include: remembering, understanding, and applying.

Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)
A free, online course that anyone can take. (See open educational resources)

measurable behaviors
Many behaviors are measurable in some way. In the learning and development context, the instructional design team strives to define what is measurable, the criteria for measuring behavior, and how best to measure it. This information helps them write performance objectives. (See behaviorism)

mental structures
Behaviors, thoughts, ideas, or systems used by an individual to establish a basis for recognizing and assimilating new information. (See constructivism)

Awareness of one’s own learning and thinking patterns.

metacognitive learning
Awareness and regulation of one’s own thoughts and the ability to change them.

Acknowledgement of an achievement usually characterized by having a short completion time and covering a narrow subject area. Learners explore and complete learning activities in a small area of knowledge, then prove their competence to be conferred a micro-certification or micro-credential. (See digital badges)

mixed reality
An immersive learning environment that combines physical elements or experiences with virtual reality elements or experiences. (See augmented reality and virtual reality)

moment of learning need
A point where there is a need for training. Conrad Gottfredson and Bob Mosher identified five unique moments when people are learning, especially with respect to learning on the job(Gottfredson and Mosher). They define them this way: learn new, learn more, apply, solve, change. The first two are associated with formal learning events and the last three are associated with performance support while working. (See blended learning)

open access
Initiatives that remove paywalls and other barriers to accessing academic and scientific resources. Open access refers to a wide variety of initiatives that use different models that are aimed at making research available without charge to readers. Open access does not address the question of copyright. Open educational resources (OER) refers to educational resources that are licensed under copyright terms, typically Creative Commons, that allow materials to be used and re-purposed.

open pedagogy
Form of experiential learning where the learners demonstrate their level of skill or knowledge by creating information, rather than simply being consumers of it. (See pedagogy)

operant conditioning
A learning where desirable behavior is reinforced or rewarded and undesirable behavior is punished. (See social and informal learning)

performance support
Refers to any tool that helps people apply a skill, solve a problem, or complete a task while on the job. (See Assessment, delivery mode, and instructional design)

personal learning paths
The way that a learner chooses to learn content to meet their personal objectives. Learners craft their own learning goals, decide how they prefer to learn, and determine how they will assess their knowledge of the content. (See blended learning)

Fictitious characters created to help user-experience designers understand who consumes their content and uses their interfaces. Personas provide designers with concrete examples of people who might use their products, using characteristics such as age, sex, background, interests, etc. (See learning experience design)

A collection of work compiled to showcase sets of skills and achievements.

progressive learning
A method of teaching that emphasizes teaching students how to think rather than teaching facts. Also referred to as progressive education(Kennedy 2019). (See game-based learning)

An explanatory mockup of a proposed solution. Prototypes are used to test the feasibility and usability of a system before committing to a full implementation. (See learning experience design)

question analysis
A statistical method for evaluating the overall performance and quality of questions in an assessment in order to identify questions that do not align with learner performance.

reflective analysis
An opportunity to reflect and analyze one’s experience as it relates to the goals and expectations for the learning.

Return on Investment. The ratio between the amount spent on a project or investment and the value that project or investment yields.

Shareable Content Object Reference Model. A set of standards that define communication between a learning management system (LMS) and a client system delivering training to a student.

scrap learning
The amount of training delivered but never applied back on the job. Scrap learning is a measure of wasted training resources and learning time. (See predictive analytics)

screen reader
Assistive technology used by those who are visually impaired, blind, or with low reading ability. A screen reader renders onscreen text and the alt text for images using a reading voice or Braille. (See accessibility)

semantic markup
Markup, typically XML, that defines the meaning of an element rather than its visual representation. For example, the HTML element <em> tells a web browser to emphasize text, but does not specify how to visually represent the text. You can then use CSS to specify how you want <em> to be rendered. The HTML element <i>, on the other hand, specifies an italic font face. Using semantic markup, like the <em> element, makes it easy for you to change aspects of style without touching the source content. (See accessibility)

sensory domain
In Bloom’s Taxonomy, the sensory domain (also know as the sensory domain) is the action-based domain. Learning objectives written to address the sensory domain specify levels of learning through the use of words such as origination, adaptation, complex overt response, mechanism, guided response, set, perception.

service design
An activity undertaken to plan and arrange people, infrastructure, communication, or material to improve quality and/or intersection between the element(s) and its users. (See learning experience design)

short-term memory
A holding area in a person’s memory used for retaining information for short periods of time. The brain then sorts and files this information and, as needed. stores in longer term memory. This holding area is also called primary or active memory. (See working memory)

situated learning
Learning that occurs in the same environment that the learned skills are practiced.
An example is on-the-job training that takes place in the workplace. (See constructivism)

Software as a Service (SaaS)
A software licensing and delivery subscription model where software is hosted on a central server and used through an app or web browser. May also be referred to as on-demand software.

stacked badges
A badge is an indicator that someone has achieved some goal. Badges figure prominently in many environments, but especially in gamified environments. Stacked badges can be thought of as a sequence of badges that represent ever-increasing levels of accomplishment. (See digital badges)

standardized tests
Any test administered in the same manner to all who take the test. Standardized tests are also graded in the same manner for everyone who took the test.

tacit knowledge
A person’s skills, ideas, or experiences that they would find difficult to state how or where they learned them. This knowledge likely can only be revealed through continuous practice or repetition in a particular context. This is sometimes referred to as informal learning.

training transfer
The ability of learners to apply knowledge and skills acquired through training to their work. (See microlearning and predictive analytics)

usability research
Quality measures that assess how users experience content or an interface and where they encounter difficulties. (See learning experience design)

user experience (UX) design
The practice of designing digital content to be more usable and useful for those using the interface. (See learning experience design)

user research
Analysis of expected consumers, including their points of pain, in order to ensure that the best content is designed to best meet their needs. (See learning experience design)

virtual presence
Immersive simulation, virtual reality (VR), or augmented reality (AR) provides users with a sensory experience where they feel as though they are actually in the virtual location. (See augmented reality)

Speech recognition technology used to transform spoken words into written text or to deliver commands to a computer application. (See machine learning)

working memory
The area of our short-term memory that is primarily devoted to immediate, conscious processing. (See cognitive load, cognitivism and long-term memory)